Elevated blood pressures in the medical setting may not necessarily reflect the individuals real status. "White coat hypertension" describes a patient whose blood pressure is elevated because of the stress of the visit to the doctor or other healthcare professional, and the worry that their blood pressure might be elevated. Repeated blood pressure checks at the doctor's office or the use of a home blood pressure monitoring device may be used to confirm that you have high blood pressure.
In hypertensive emergency, there is evidence of direct damage to one or more organs. The most affected organs include the brain, kidney, heart and lungs, producing symptoms which may include confusion, drowsiness, chest pain and breathlessness. In hypertensive emergency, the blood pressure must be reduced more rapidly to stop ongoing organ damage, however, there is a lack of randomized controlled trial evidence for this approach.
If your systolic and diastolic blood pressure are in two different categories, doctors consider the number that is in the higher category. For example, if your blood pressure is 135/91, your systolic blood pressure is in the prehypertensive range and your diastolic blood pressure is in the range of Stage 1 hypertension. Your measurement or 135/91 would place you in the category of Stage 1 hypertension.
While high blood pressure doesn’t have any distinctive symptoms in itself, there can be many associated conditions and signs that high blood pressure may be affecting your body and causing damage. When left untreated, high blood pressure can cause the following symptoms in the body, which may worsen over time. If you are experiencing any of the following symptoms chances are your high blood pressure may be placing you at risk of developing further conditions and should be addressed immediately.
The damage is cumulative over time. High blood pressure is rarely associated with symptoms, so it is often left untreated or overlooked until permanent and devastating organ damage has occurred. When blood pressure is increased, the walls of the arteries may become injured or stretched. Damage to the blood vessels can create weak regions that give rise to aneurysms or rupture.
Metformin is generally safe in people with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease, with proportional reduction of metformin dose according to severity of estimated glomerular filtration rate and with periodic assessment of kidney function, (e.g., periodic plasma creatinine measurement). The FDA recommends avoiding the use of metformin in more severe chronic kidney disease, below the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) cutoff of 30 mL/minute/1.73 m2. Phenformin, another biguanide, was withdrawn from the market because of an increased risk of lactic acidosis (rate of 40-64 per 100,000 patient-years). However, metformin is safer than phenformin, and the risk of developing metformin-associated lactic acidosis is not increased except for known high-risk groups.
Once the diagnosis of hypertension has been made, healthcare providers should attempt to identify the underlying cause based on risk factors and other symptoms, if present. Secondary hypertension is more common in preadolescent children, with most cases caused by kidney disease. Primary or essential hypertension is more common in adolescents and has multiple risk factors, including obesity and a family history of hypertension. Laboratory tests can also be performed to identify possible causes of secondary hypertension, and to determine whether hypertension has caused damage to the heart, eyes, and kidneys. Additional tests for diabetes and high cholesterol levels are usually performed because these conditions are additional risk factors for the development of heart disease and may require treatment.
The pulse pressure is a consequence of the pulsatile nature of the cardiac output, i.e. the heartbeat. The magnitude of the pulse pressure is usually attributed to the interaction of the stroke volume of the heart, the compliance (ability to expand) of the arterial system—largely attributable to the aorta and large elastic arteries—and the resistance to flow in the arterial tree.
So enjoy the great warm weather and take steps to get healthy. It’s never too late. For more information or to make an appointment with Dr. Barreto, please call MMH Medical Group at 315-769-4704. The MMH Medical Group is located in the new Medical Office Building at 181 Maple Street, Massena, across from the hospital. The MMH Medical Group offers same day sick call appointments and welcomes new patients and families to their practice.
For an accurate diagnosis of hypertension to be made, it is essential for proper blood pressure measurement technique to be used. Improper measurement of blood pressure is common and can change the blood pressure reading by up to 10 mmHg, which can lead to misdiagnosis and misclassification of hypertension. Correct blood pressure measurement technique involves several steps. Proper blood pressure measurement requires the person whose blood pressure is being measured to sit quietly for at least five minutes which is then followed by application of a properly fitted blood pressure cuff to a bare upper arm. The person should be seated with their back supported, feet flat on the floor, and with their legs uncrossed. The person whose blood pressure is being measured should avoid talking or moving during this process. The arm being measured should be supported on a flat surface at the level of the heart. Blood pressure measurement should be done in a quiet room so the medical professional checking the blood pressure can hear the Korotkoff sounds while listening to the brachial artery with a stethoscope for accurate blood pressure measurements. The blood pressure cuff should be deflated slowly (2-3 mmHg per second) while listening for the Korotkoff sounds. The bladder should be emptied before a person's blood pressure is measured since this can increase blood pressure by up to 15/10 mmHg. Multiple blood pressure readings (at least two) spaced 1–2 minutes apart should be obtained to ensure accuracy. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over 12 to 24 hours is the most accurate method to confirm the diagnosis.
You may be directed to seek medical care if blood pressure readings are elevated if done as part of a community health screening. Isolated elevated blood pressure readings do not necessarily make the diagnosis of hypertension. Blood pressure readings vary throughout the day, and your primary care provider may record a different reading than the one that was measured in a screening that sent you in for care.
Metformin treatment of people at a prediabetes stage of risk for type 2 diabetes may decrease their chances of developing the disease, although intensive physical exercise and dieting work significantly better for this purpose. In a large U.S. study known as the Diabetes Prevention Program, participants were divided into groups and given either placebo, metformin, or lifestyle intervention and followed for an average of three years.
On average, diabetics are found to produce two to three times more glucose in their liver than non-diabetics. Metformin effectively suppresses glucose production in the liver. Metformin also makes cells more sensitive to insulin. Experts agree that diabetes starts with insulin resistance. Insulin is the courier that carries glucose from your food into cells. When cells resist, insulin is not able to deliver sugar into muscle and fat cells. Sugar then backs up in the bloodstream instead.