Vitamin B12 is available in several forms. There’s much controversy surrounding which forms of Vitamin B12 are best absorbed by human beings. Manufacturers of each form claim support in the scientific literature for their form. But, something else seems to matter more. If you have a clear deficiency (identified with an inexpensive blood test), you need upwards of 1000mcg to quickly shore up your Vitamin B12 levels.
Disclaimer: Healthline has made every effort to make certain that all information is factually correct, comprehensive, and up-to-date. However, this article should not be used as a substitute for the knowledge and expertise of a licensed healthcare professional. You should always consult your doctor or other healthcare professional before taking any medication. The drug information contained herein is subject to change and is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. The absence of warnings or other information for a given drug does not indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for all patients or all specific uses.
It is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers (such as weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers) are not child-resistant and young children can open them easily. To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out of their sight and reach. http://www.upandaway.org
Metformin is an effective and commonly administered drug for controlling plasma glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Gastrointestinal adverse effects such as abdominal pain, nausea, dyspepsia, anorexia, and diarrhea are common and widely accepted when occurring at the start of metformin therapy. Diarrhea occurring long after the dosage titration period is much less well recognized. Our patient began to experience nausea, abdominal cramping, and explosive watery diarrhea that occasionally caused incontinence after several years of stable metformin therapy A trial of metformin discontinuation resolved all gastrointestinal symptoms. A review of the literature revealed two reports that suggest diarrhea occurring long after the start of metformin therapy is relatively common, based on surveys of patients with diabetes. Metformin-induced diarrhea is differentiated from diabetic diarrhea, which is clinically similar, except diabetic diarrhea is rare in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes who are taking metformin and experience diarrhea deserve a drug-free interval before undergoing expensive and uncomfortable diagnostic tests, even when the dosage has been stable over a long period.
French diabetologist Jean Sterne studied the antihyperglycemic properties of galegine, an alkaloid isolated from Galega officinalis, which is related in structure to metformin and had seen brief use as an antidiabetic before the synthalins were developed. Later, working at Laboratoires Aron in Paris, he was prompted by Garcia's report to reinvestigate the blood sugar-lowering activity of metformin and several biguanide analogs. Sterne was the first to try metformin on humans for the treatment of diabetes; he coined the name "Glucophage" (glucose eater) for the medication and published his results in 1957.
Traditionally, blood pressure was measured non-invasively using ausculation with a mercury-tube sphygmomanometer. Ausculation is still generally considered to be the gold standard of accuracy for non-invasive blood pressure readings in clinic. However, semi-automated methods have become common, largely due to concerns about potential mercury toxicity, although cost, ease of use and applicability to ambulatory blood pressure or home blood pressure measurements have also influenced this trend. Early automated alternatives to mercury-tube sphygmomanometers were often seriously inaccurate, but modern devices validated to international standards achieve average difference between two standardized reading methods of 5 mm Hg or less and a standard deviation of less than 8 mm Hg. Most of these semi-automated methods measure blood pressure using oscillometry.
Follow-up is important. If your blood pressure goal has not been achieved after a month of treatment, your healthcare provider may increase your dose or add a different class of medication. After you reach your blood pressure goal, you must continue to monitor your response to treatment and development of any other conditions in order to prevent progression of problems.
Firstly, it increases the sensitivity of muscle cells to insulin. This enables these cells to remove sugar from the blood more effectively. Secondly, it reduces the amount of sugar produced by cells in the liver. Finally, it delays the absorption of sugar from the intestines into the bloodstream after eating so that there is less of a spike in blood sugar levels after meals.
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In Europe hypertension occurs in about 30-45% of people as of 2013. In 1995 it was estimated that 43 million people (24% of the population) in the United States had hypertension or were taking antihypertensive medication. By 2004 this had increased to 29% and further to 32% (76 million US adults) by 2017. In 2017, with the change in definitions for hypertension, 46% of people in the United States are affected. African-American adults in the United States have among the highest rates of hypertension in the world at 44%. It is also more common in Filipino Americans and less common in US whites and Mexican Americans. Differences in hypertension rates are multifactorial and under study.
Everything you need to know about hypertension Hypertension or high blood pressure can lead to heart disease, stroke, and death and is a major global health concern. A range of risk factors may increase the chances of a person developing hypertension, but can it be prevented? Read on to find out what causes hypertension, its symptoms, types, and how to prevent it. Read now
The molecular mechanism of metformin is incompletely understood. Multiple potential mechanisms of action have been proposed: inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (complex I), activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), inhibition of glucagon-induced elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) with reduced activation of protein kinase A (PKA), inhibition of mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and an effect on gut microbiota. Ultimately, it decreases gluconeogenesis (liver glucose production). It also has an insulin-sensitizing effect with multiple actions on tissues including the liver, skeletal muscle, endothelium, adipose tissue, and the ovary. The average patient with type 2 diabetes has three times the normal rate of gluconeogenesis; metformin treatment reduces this by over one-third.
Instead of an arbitrary goal to “lose weight,” talk with your doctor about a healthy weight for you. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends a weight loss goal of one to two pounds a week. That means starting off eating 500 calories less per day than what you normally eat. Then decide on what physical activity you can start in order to reach that goal. If exercising five nights a week is too hard to work into your schedule, aim for one more night than what you’re doing right now. When that fits comfortably into your schedule, add another night.
^ Jump up to: a b c Giuseppe, Mancia; Fagard, R; Narkiewicz, K; Redon, J; Zanchetti, A; Bohm, M; Christiaens, T; Cifkova, R; De Backer, G; Dominiczak, A; Galderisi, M; Grobbee, DE; Jaarsma, T; Kirchhof, P; Kjeldsen, SE; Laurent, S; Manolis, AJ; Nilsson, PM; Ruilope, LM; Schmieder, RE; Sirnes, PA; Sleight, P; Viigimaa, M; Waeber, B; Zannad, F; Redon, J; Dominiczak, A; Narkiewicz, K; Nilsson, PM; et al. (July 2013). "2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: The Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)". European Heart Journal. 34 (28): 2159–219. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/eht151. PMID 23771844.
These common metformin side effects also happen because metformin alters your digestive process and your nutrient absorption. Some foods/products may start tasting and smelling better to you, while others may gain an unfamiliar/unpleasant smell/taste. Patients often report a heightened sense of smell on metformin, as well as metallic taste in the mouth and while consuming certain foods. 1-5% of the patients experience taste and smell disturbances while medicating with metformin.
Currently, the RAS is targeted pharmacologically by ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). The aldosterone system is directly targeted by spironolactone, an aldosterone antagonist. The fluid retention may be targeted by diuretics; the antihypertensive effect of diuretics is due to its effect on blood volume. Generally, the baroreceptor reflex is not targeted in hypertension because if blocked, individuals may suffer from orthostatic hypotension and fainting.
Pickering TG, Hall JE, Appel LJ, Falkner BE, Graves J, Hill MN, Jones DW, Kurtz T, Sheps SG, Roccella EJ (2005). Subcommittee of Professional Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research. "Recommendations for blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals: Part 1: blood pressure measurement in humans: a statement for professionals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research". Hypertension. 45 (5): 142–61. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000150859.47929.8e. PMID 15611362.
She'll inflate the cuff to a pressure higher than your systolic blood pressure, and it will tighten around your arm. Then she'll release it. As the cuff deflates, the first sound she hears through the stethoscope is the systolic blood pressure. It sounds like a whooshing noise. The point where this noise goes away marks the diastolic blood pressure.
3. Implement strategies to lower inflammation. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies connect high blood pressure with chronic inflammation, a driving force for nearly every disease on the planet. Lowering inflammation starts with what you put on your fork. Focus on anti-inflammatory foods like wild-caught seafood (rich in omega-3 fatty acids), freshly ground flax and chia seeds, spices like turmeric, and plenty of colorful plant foods. Good sleep, stress management, exercise, and the right nutrients can also help lower inflammation.
Blood pressure control is a lifelong challenge. Hypertension can progress through the years, and treatments that worked earlier in life may need to be adjusted over time. Blood pressure control may involve gradually making lifestyle changes like diet, weight loss, exercise, and possibly taking medicine if necessary. In some situations, medications may be recommended immediately. As with many diseases, you and your doctor should work together to find the treatment plan that works for you.
^ Jump up to: a b Calello DP, Liu KD, Wiegand TJ, Roberts DM, Lavergne V, Gosselin S, Hoffman RS, Nolin TD, Ghannoum M (August 2015). "Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning: Systematic Review and Recommendations From the Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup". Critical Care Medicine. 43 (8): 1716–30. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000001002. PMID 25860205.
Metformin may result in a B12 deficiency, a complication which is known as "pernicious anemia" and can lead to permanent neurological damage. B12 deficiency is also linked with an increased risk of strokes. Early symptoms of B12 deficiency may include anemia, ringing in the ears, and depression. For those using metformin, it is important to have your B12 levels monitored so a lack of the vitamin can be addressed before a deficiency occurs.
First-line medications for hypertension include thiazide-diuretics, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors), and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). These medications may be used alone or in combination (ACE inhibitors and ARBs are not recommended for use in combination); the latter option may serve to minimize counter-regulatory mechanisms that act to restore blood pressure values to pre-treatment levels. Most people require more than one medication to control their hypertension. Medications for blood pressure control should be implemented by a stepped care approach when target levels are not reached.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure typically does not cause symptoms. Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.
^ Jump up to: a b Brown S, Atkins C, Bagley R, Carr A, Cowgill L, Davidson M, Egner B, Elliott J, Henik R, Labato M, Littman M, Polzin D, Ross L, Snyder P, Stepien R (2007). "Guidelines for the identification, evaluation, and management of systemic hypertension in dogs and cats". Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 21 (3): 542–58. PMID 17552466.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents (August 2004). "The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents". Pediatrics. 114 (2 Suppl 4th Report): 555–76. doi:10.1542/peds.114.2.S2.555. PMID 15286277.
^ Jump up to: a b c Bolen S, Feldman L, Vassy J, Wilson L, Yeh HC, Marinopoulos S, Wiley C, Selvin E, Wilson R, Bass EB, Brancati FL (September 2007). "Systematic review: comparative effectiveness and safety of oral medications for type 2 diabetes mellitus". Annals of Internal Medicine. 147 (6): 386–99. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-147-6-200709180-00178. PMID 17638715.
Blood pressure is measure in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and recorded as two numbers, systolic and diastolic. Systolic is the top number (also the higher one), which measure the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats, so when its muscles contract. Diastolic the bottom number (also the lower one), which measures the pressure in the arteries between heart beats, so when the muscles relax and refill with blood.
Physical changes: If something in your body changes, you may begin experiencing issues throughout your body. High blood pressure may be one of those issues. For example, it’s thought that changes in your kidney function due to aging may upset the body’s natural balance of salts and fluid. This change may cause your body’s blood pressure to increase.
Seven herbs and supplements for type 2 diabetes The uncontrolled blood sugar levels in diabetes have the potential for a herbal helping hand. Growing research suggests that herbs and supplements, such as aloe vera and cinnamon, may help with type 2 diabetes. Learn about seven of these herbs and supplements in this MNT Knowledge Center article. Read now
In the 19th and 20th centuries, before effective pharmacological treatment for hypertension became possible, three treatment modalities were used, all with numerous side-effects: strict sodium restriction (for example the rice diet), sympathectomy (surgical ablation of parts of the sympathetic nervous system), and pyrogen therapy (injection of substances that caused a fever, indirectly reducing blood pressure).
But what is a healthy blood pressure level? The exact range considered acceptable can vary. For those individuals with a family history of hypertension or with related complications, like chronic kidney disease, it’s even more important to stay at a low level. A blood pressure reading is composed of two numbers that measure the pressure in your arteries when the heart beats (called systolic pressure) and the pressure in your arteries between heartbeats (called diastolic pressure). A healthy blood pressure should measure below 120/80 (the numbers represent millimeters of mercury). The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute provides the following guidelines for understanding normal blood pressure and hypertension: