The most common adverse effect of metformin is gastrointestinal irritation, including diarrhea, cramps, nausea, vomiting, and increased flatulence; metformin is more commonly associated with gastrointestinal side effects than most other antidiabetic medications.[32] The most serious potential side effect of metformin use is lactic acidosis; this complication is very rare, and the vast majority of these cases seem to be related to comorbid conditions, such as impaired liver or kidney function, rather than to the metformin itself.[62]
Hypertension is a serious chronic disorder that can cause many harmful health effects over time. If you are an adult over the age of 20, you should have your blood pressure checked by your healthcare provide at your regular health visit. If you are over the age of 40, it's important to have your blood pressure checked annually. Remember, the reading you get from a manual machine or at the pharmacy may not be accurate.
Resistant hypertension is defined as high blood pressure that remains above a target level, in spite of being prescribed three or more antihypertensive drugs simultaneously with different mechanisms of action.[131] Failing to take the prescribed drugs, is an important cause of resistant hypertension.[132] Resistant hypertension may also result from chronically high activity of the autonomic nervous system, an effect known as "neurogenic hypertension".[133] Electrical therapies that stimulate the baroreflex are being studied as an option for lowering blood pressure in people in this situation.[134] 

^ Qaseem, A; Wilt, TJ; Rich, R; Humphrey, LL; Frost, J; Forciea, MA; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians and the Commission on Health of the Public and Science of the American Academy of Family, Physicians. (21 March 2017). "Pharmacologic Treatment of Hypertension in Adults Aged 60 Years or Older to Higher Versus Lower Blood Pressure Targets: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians". Annals of Internal Medicine. 166 (6): 430–437. doi:10.7326/m16-1785. PMID 28135725.
If at any point in your journey the side effects of metformin become too much to live with, do consult your doctor to get professional medical help and advice. They might review your dosage and potentially decrease it to curb some of the symptoms. Your doctor may also prescribe you a different formulation of the drug, maybe a slower-releasing for of it, to help stabilise your symptoms.

Malignant hypertension. This refers to extremely high blood pressures, over 180 mm Hg systolic or 120 mm Hg diastolic, that develop quickly and produces end organ damage. Malignant hypertension is a condition that requires immediate medical care. This condition is also known as hypertensive urgency or hypertensive emergency. Symptoms may occur as a result of organ damage, including confusion or mental status changes, blurred vision, seizures, shortness of breath, swelling, and chest pain due to angina, heart attack, or aneurysm.
^ Bennett WL, Maruthur NM, Singh S, Segal JB, Wilson LM, Chatterjee R, Marinopoulos SS, Puhan MA, Ranasinghe P, Block L, Nicholson WK, Hutfless S, Bass EB, Bolen S (May 2011). "Comparative effectiveness and safety of medications for type 2 diabetes: an update including new drugs and 2-drug combinations". Annals of Internal Medicine. 154 (9): 602–13. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-154-9-201105030-00336. PMC 3733115. PMID 21403054.
^ Nathan DM, Buse JB, Davidson MB, Ferrannini E, Holman RR, Sherwin R, Zinman B (January 2009). "Medical management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes". Diabetologia. 52 (1): 17–30. doi:10.1007/s00125-008-1157-y. PMID 18941734.
Historically the treatment for what was called the "hard pulse disease" consisted in reducing the quantity of blood by bloodletting or the application of leeches.[152] This was advocated by The Yellow Emperor of China, Cornelius Celsus, Galen, and Hippocrates.[152] The therapeutic approach for the treatment of hard pulse disease included changes in lifestyle (staying away from anger and sexual intercourse) and dietary program for patients (avoiding the consumption of wine, meat, and pastries, reducing the volume of food in a meal, maintaining a low-energy diet and the dietary usage of spinach and vinegar).
^ Wulffelé MG, Kooy A, Lehert P, Bets D, Ogterop JC, Borger van der Burg B, Donker AJ, Stehouwer CD (November 2003). "Effects of short-term treatment with metformin on serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial". Journal of Internal Medicine. 254 (5): 455–63. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2796.2003.01213.x. PMID 14535967.
When your heart contracts and squeezes blood out into your network of arteries, the pressure inside those blood vessels is at its highest. This is called systolic pressure and it’s the top number on your blood pressure reading. In between beats, the heart relaxes and the pressure drops. This is your diastolic blood pressure, and it’s the reading’s bottom number.
Disclaimer: Healthline has made every effort to make certain that all information is factually correct, comprehensive, and up-to-date. However, this article should not be used as a substitute for the knowledge and expertise of a licensed healthcare professional. You should always consult your doctor or other healthcare professional before taking any medication. The drug information contained herein is subject to change and is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. The absence of warnings or other information for a given drug does not indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for all patients or all specific uses.
2. How did I get the numbers? I started with the commonly seen "Systolic/ Diastolic pairs" seen in the literature - 200/120, 160/100, 140/90, 120/80 and 90/60. From there, I interpolated and extrapolated all the other numbers. Note that these are AVERAGE relationships. For instance, instead of 140/90, your BP may be 140/100, or 140/80. Each individual will have a unique systolic-diastolic relationship. If your S/D difference varies significantly from the averages shown above, this can be helpful in assessing your particular cardiovascular condition.
Because of the need for emergency care, it is important to recognize the early signs of malignant hypertension. The first giveaway is blood pressure of 180/120. You might have bleeding in the eyes due to rupture of the small blood vessels. Other malignant hypertension symptoms can include chest pain, dizziness, a headache, numbness in your extremities, and confusion.

Metformin is a drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as a prescription medication to treat diabetes. This medication is used to decrease hepatic (liver) glucose production, to decrease GI glucose absorption and to increase target cell insulin sensitivity. This medication is a treatment indicated as an adjunct to diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes such as weight loss to improve glycemic (blood sugar) control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Many patients with type 2 diabetes will eventually need to take insulin by injection. Metformin does not cause weight gain.
Calcium channel blockers are drugs that reduce the movement of calcium into cells of the heart and vessels. This reduces the strength of heart contractions and relaxes the arteries, allowing them to remain more open, lowering blood pressure. Side effects of calcium channel blockers can include heart palpitations, dizziness, swollen ankles, and constipation. Calcium channel blockers can be taken alone or with other blood pressure medications. They should be taken with food or milk. Because of potential interactions, those taking calcium channel blockers should avoid alcohol and grapefruit juice.
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