The World Health Organization has identified hypertension, or high blood pressure, as the leading cause of cardiovascular mortality.[162] The World Hypertension League (WHL), an umbrella organization of 85 national hypertension societies and leagues, recognized that more than 50% of the hypertensive population worldwide are unaware of their condition.[162] To address this problem, the WHL initiated a global awareness campaign on hypertension in 2005 and dedicated May 17 of each year as World Hypertension Day (WHD). Over the past three years, more national societies have been engaging in WHD and have been innovative in their activities to get the message to the public. In 2007, there was record participation from 47 member countries of the WHL. During the week of WHD, all these countries – in partnership with their local governments, professional societies, nongovernmental organizations and private industries – promoted hypertension awareness among the public through several media and public rallies. Using mass media such as Internet and television, the message reached more than 250 million people. As the momentum picks up year after year, the WHL is confident that almost all the estimated 1.5 billion people affected by elevated blood pressure can be reached.[163]

Metformin is an effective and commonly administered drug for controlling plasma glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Gastrointestinal adverse effects such as abdominal pain, nausea, dyspepsia, anorexia, and diarrhea are common and widely accepted when occurring at the start of metformin therapy. Diarrhea occurring long after the dosage titration period is much less well recognized. Our patient began to experience nausea, abdominal cramping, and explosive watery diarrhea that occasionally caused incontinence after several years of stable metformin therapy A trial of metformin discontinuation resolved all gastrointestinal symptoms. A review of the literature revealed two reports that suggest diarrhea occurring long after the start of metformin therapy is relatively common, based on surveys of patients with diabetes. Metformin-induced diarrhea is differentiated from diabetic diarrhea, which is clinically similar, except diabetic diarrhea is rare in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes who are taking metformin and experience diarrhea deserve a drug-free interval before undergoing expensive and uncomfortable diagnostic tests, even when the dosage has been stable over a long period.
CoQ10 depletion could cause gum problems, while depletion of Vitamins B9 and B12 could cause diarrhea, nausea and loss of appetite. A loss of appetite, nausea and diarrhea could be caused by, both, B12 and Folic Acid (B9) depletion. Since the digestive tract begins with the mouth, we must mention gingivitis or gum problems here. These can happen when CoQ10, another vital nutrient, is depleted from the body by Metformin (Biguanides).
The dosage is based on your medical condition, response to treatment, and other medications you may be taking. Be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products). To reduce your risk of side effects (such as upset stomach), your doctor may direct you to start this medication at a low dose and gradually increase your dose. Follow your doctor's instructions carefully.

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When starting metformin, around a third of people suffer some degree of stomach irritation, which usually resolves quickly. Only 3 percent to 10 percent of people in clinical trials experience symptoms severe enough that they stop taking the drug. Higher doses tend to cause more irritation, at least when comparing 500 milligrams (mg) to higher doses. Little difference is seen between doses of 1,000 mg and 2,500 mg.
Metformin hydrochloride (1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride) is freely-soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol, but almost insoluble in acetone, ether, or chloroform. The pKa of metformin is 12.4.[107] The usual synthesis of metformin, originally described in 1922, involves the one-pot reaction of dimethylamine hydrochloride and 2-cyanoguanidine over heat.[108][109]
It is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers (such as weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers) are not child-resistant and young children can open them easily. To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out of their sight and reach. http://www.upandaway.org
Baroreceptors in low pressure receptor zones (mainly in the venae cavae and the pulmonary veins, and in the atria) result in feedback by regulating the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH/Vasopressin), renin and aldosterone. The resultant increase in blood volume results in an increased cardiac output by the Frank–Starling law of the heart, in turn increasing arterial blood pressure.
However, following a meta-analysis in 2007 that linked the medication's use to an increased risk of heart attack,[137] concerns were raised over the safety of medicines containing rosiglitazone. In September 2010 the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended that the medication be suspended from the European market because the benefits of rosiglitazone no longer outweighed the risks.[138][139]

As you get older, high blood pressure, especially isolated systolic hypertension, is more common and can increase your risk of serious health problems. Treatment, especially if you have other medical conditions, requires ongoing evaluation and discussions with your doctor to strike the best balance of reducing risks and maintaining a good quality of life.
Your doctor can tell you if an abnormal daily blood pressure pattern may need treatment. He or she may recommend a 24-hour blood pressure monitoring test. The device used for this test measures your blood pressure at regular intervals over a 24-hour period and provides a more accurate picture of blood pressure changes over an average day and night.

The relationship between metformin and weight is unclear, but several theories provide a plausible explanation for weight fluctuations. Reduced hunger is one proven side effect of metformin, according to the Mayo Clinic. It might not appear as if you’re eating less with this drug, but the number of calories you’re currently consuming for breakfast, lunch, and dinner might be lower than your normal food intake. This subtle change in appetite could be responsible for a gradual decline in weight.

According to guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC), a reading below 120/80 mm Hg is classified as normal blood pressure. Those with a blood pressure reading anywhere from 120/80 up to 129/80 are classified within a category called elevated blood pressure. Hypertension is defined as a reading of 130/80 or higher.
The UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) revealed that taking metformin reduces the risk of heart attack by 39 percent compared with other blood-glucose-lowering drugs. For this reason, metformin is often continued even after it no longer adequately controls blood glucose by itself. Another drug or drugs are then “layered” on top of metformin to achieve blood glucose control.
Metformin hydrochloride (1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride) is freely-soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol, but almost insoluble in acetone, ether, or chloroform. The pKa of metformin is 12.4.[107] The usual synthesis of metformin, originally described in 1922, involves the one-pot reaction of dimethylamine hydrochloride and 2-cyanoguanidine over heat.[108][109]
Blood pressure is measured with a blood pressure cuff (sphygmomanometer). This may be done using a stethoscope and a cuff and gauge or by an automatic machine. It is a routine part of the physical examination and one of the vital signs often recorded for a patient visit. Other vital signs include pulse rate, respiratory rate (breathing rate), temperature, and weight.
For older people, often the first number (systolic) is 130 or higher, but the second number (diastolic) is less than 80. This problem is called isolated systolic hypertension, which is due to age-related stiffening of the major arteries. It is the most common form of high blood pressure in older people and can lead to serious health problems (stroke, heart disease, eye problems, and kidney failure) in addition to shortness of breath during light physical activity, lightheadedness upon standing too fast, and falls. Isolated systolic hypertension is treated in the same way as regular high blood pressure (130 or higher for the first number, or 80 or higher for the second number) but may require more than one type of blood pressure medication. If your doctor determines that your systolic pressure is above a normal level for your age, ask how you can lower it.
^ Mente, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Dagenais, Gilles; Lear, Scott; McQueen, Matthew; Diaz, Rafael; Avezum, Alvaro; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Lanas, Fernando; Li, Wei; Lu, Yin; Yi, Sun; Rensheng, Lei; Iqbal, Romaina; Mony, Prem; Yusuf, Rita; Yusoff, Khalid; Szuba, Andrzej; Oguz, Aytekin; Rosengren, Annika; Bahonar, Ahmad; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth; Chifamba, Jephat; Mann, Johannes F E; Anand, Sonia S; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, S (July 2016). "Associations of urinary sodium excretion with cardiovascular events in individuals with and without hypertension: a pooled analysis of data from four studies". The Lancet. 388 (10043): 465–75. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30467-6. PMID 27216139.

Peter, I’ve been using a blood pressure meter for nearly 30 years, so my response is based on my personal experience and information I’ve acquired over the years. First, I suggest that you take your meter to the doctor and have them check several readings of your meter against theirs. For example, If your meter consistently shows it’s 10 points lower than the doctor’s, just delete the 10 points from your meter reading (have them check both numbers so you can adjust both as necessary). Also, it’s common that many doctor’s offices take your blood pressure incorrectly (you should actually sit still for 5 minutes, with your feet on the floor and the cuff at the same level as your heart) . Some of us have”white coat” hypertension, so you may always be elevated at the doctor’s office. If you are a large man, you (and your doctor’s office) may need to use a larger cuff as the wrong size of cuff can affect your reading. Also, I spoke with customer service at one of the companies that makes many of the home & professional meters, and she told me that the automated machines are not very accurate if you have kidney disease or heart failure (I have both). Ask the doctor’s staff to always use the manual system and it will be more accurate than those noisy automatic ones.


Firstly, it increases the sensitivity of muscle cells to insulin. This enables these cells to remove sugar from the blood more effectively. Secondly, it reduces the amount of sugar produced by cells in the liver. Finally, it delays the absorption of sugar from the intestines into the bloodstream after eating so that there is less of a spike in blood sugar levels after meals.
The portal venous system contains veins coming from the stomach, intestine, spleen, and pancreas. These veins merge into the portal vein, which branches into smaller vessels and travel through the liver. Portal hypertension occurs when there is an increase in the blood pressure within the portal venous system. When the vessels in the liver are blocked due to liver damage, blood cannot flow properly through the liver. This causes high blood pressure in the portal system.
Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of arteries. When the doctor measures your blood pressure, the results are given in two numbers. The first number, called systolic blood pressure, is the pressure caused by your heart contracting and pushing out blood. The second number, called diastolic blood pressure, is the pressure when your heart relaxes and fills with blood. Your blood pressure reading is usually given as the systolic blood pressure number over the diastolic blood pressure number, such as 138/72. Normal blood pressure for adults is defined as a systolic pressure of less than 120 and a diastolic pressure of less than 80. This is stated as 120/80.
Blood pressure monitors for use at home can be bought at drug stores, department stores, and other places. Again, these monitors may not always give you a correct reading. You should always compare your machine’s reading with a reading from your doctor’s machine to make sure they are the same. Remember that any measurement above normal should prompt a visit to the doctor, who can then talk with you about the best course of action.
Before measuring your blood pressure, do not smoke, drink caffeinated beverages, or exercise for at least 30 minutes before the test. Rest for at least five minutes before the measurements and sit still with your back straight and supported. Feet should be flat on the floor and not crossed. Your arm should also be supported on a flat surface like a table with the upper arm at heart level.
You may be directed to seek medical care if blood pressure readings are elevated if done as part of a community health screening. Isolated elevated blood pressure readings do not necessarily make the diagnosis of hypertension. Blood pressure readings vary throughout the day, and your primary care provider may record a different reading than the one that was measured in a screening that sent you in for care.
While high blood pressure doesn’t have any distinctive symptoms in itself, there can be many associated conditions and signs that high blood pressure may be affecting your body and causing damage. When left untreated, high blood pressure can cause the following symptoms in the body, which may worsen over time. If you are experiencing any of the following symptoms chances are your high blood pressure may be placing you at risk of developing further conditions and should be addressed immediately.
^ Jump up to: a b Burt VL, Cutler JA, Higgins M, et al. (July 1995). "Trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the adult US population. Data from the health examination surveys, 1960 to 1991". Hypertension. 26 (1): 60–69. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.26.1.60. PMID 7607734. Archived from the original on 2012-12-20. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
As you get older, high blood pressure, especially isolated systolic hypertension, is more common and can increase your risk of serious health problems. Treatment, especially if you have other medical conditions, requires ongoing evaluation and discussions with your doctor to strike the best balance of reducing risks and maintaining a good quality of life.

As for when to check your blood pressure, the most important thing is to do it consistently the same time of the day (ask the doctor which time he prefers and also what time in relation to taking your medication). The following article has a lot of good information for someone just starting to monitor their blood pressure: https://www.drugs.com/cg/how-to-take-a-blood-pressure.html


In 2017, the American College of Physicians's guidelines were updated to recognize metformin as the first-line treatment for type-2 diabetes. These guidelines supersede earlier reviews. For example, a 2014 review found tentative evidence that people treated with sulfonylureas had a higher risk of severe low blood sugar events (RR 5.64), though their risk of non-fatal cardiovascular events was lower than the risk of those treated with metformin (RR 0.67). There was not enough data available at that time to determine the relative risk of death or of death from heart disease.[27]
She'll inflate the cuff to a pressure higher than your systolic blood pressure, and it will tighten around your arm. Then she'll release it. As the cuff deflates, the first sound she hears through the stethoscope is the systolic blood pressure. It sounds like a whooshing noise. The point where this noise goes away marks the diastolic blood pressure.
During each heartbeat, blood pressure varies between a maximum (systolic) and a minimum (diastolic) pressure.[50] The blood pressure in the circulation is principally due to the pumping action of the heart.[51] Differences in mean blood pressure drive the flow of blood around the circulation. The rate of mean blood flow depends on both blood pressure and the resistance to flow presented by the blood vessels. In the absence of hydrostatic effects (e.g. standing), mean blood pressure decreases as the circulating blood moves away from the heart through arteries and capillaries due to viscous losses of energy. Mean blood pressure drops over the whole circulation, although most of the fall occurs along the small arteries and arterioles.[52] Pulsatility also diminishes in the smaller elements of the arterial circulation, although some transmitted pulsatility is observed in capillaries.[53]

The World Health Organization has identified hypertension, or high blood pressure, as the leading cause of cardiovascular mortality.[162] The World Hypertension League (WHL), an umbrella organization of 85 national hypertension societies and leagues, recognized that more than 50% of the hypertensive population worldwide are unaware of their condition.[162] To address this problem, the WHL initiated a global awareness campaign on hypertension in 2005 and dedicated May 17 of each year as World Hypertension Day (WHD). Over the past three years, more national societies have been engaging in WHD and have been innovative in their activities to get the message to the public. In 2007, there was record participation from 47 member countries of the WHL. During the week of WHD, all these countries – in partnership with their local governments, professional societies, nongovernmental organizations and private industries – promoted hypertension awareness among the public through several media and public rallies. Using mass media such as Internet and television, the message reached more than 250 million people. As the momentum picks up year after year, the WHL is confident that almost all the estimated 1.5 billion people affected by elevated blood pressure can be reached.[163]


Recognizing heart attack symptoms and signs can help save your life or that of someone you love. Some heart attack symptoms, including left arm pain and chest pain, are well known but other, more nonspecific symptoms may be associated with a heart attack. Nausea, vomiting, malaise, indigestion, sweating, shortness of breath, and fatigue may signal a heart attack. Heart attack symptoms and signs in women may differ from those in men.

The United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommended in 2004 that women with PCOS and a body mass index above 25 be given metformin for anovulation and infertility when other therapies fail to produce results.[44] UK and international clinical practice guidelines do not recommend metformin as a first-line treatment[45] or do not recommend it at all, except for women with glucose intolerance.[46] The guidelines suggest clomiphene as the first medication option and emphasize lifestyle modification independently from medical treatment. Metformin treatment decreases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with PCOS who exhibited impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) at baseline.[47][48]
Effective lifestyle modification may lower blood pressure as much as an individual antihypertensive medication. Combinations of two or more lifestyle modifications can achieve even better results.[87] There is considerable evidence that reducing dietary salt intake lowers blood pressure, but whether this translates into a reduction in mortality and cardiovascular disease remains uncertain.[96] Estimated sodium intake ≥6g/day and <3g/day are both associated with high risk of death or major cardiovascular disease, but the association between high sodium intake and adverse outcomes is only observed in people with hypertension.[97] Consequently, in the absence of results from randomized controlled trials, the wisdom of reducing levels of dietary salt intake below 3g/day has been questioned.[96]
This side effect only occurs when using the extended-release version. In this version, metformin diffuses through the capsule that contains the drug, and in many people the empty shell is not digested, passing apparently intact through the digestive tract. However, even though the pill appears intact, it’s just an empty husk; the medicine has been absorbed.

Metformin hydrochloride (1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride) is freely-soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol, but almost insoluble in acetone, ether, or chloroform. The pKa of metformin is 12.4.[107] The usual synthesis of metformin, originally described in 1922, involves the one-pot reaction of dimethylamine hydrochloride and 2-cyanoguanidine over heat.[108][109]
When an individual is approaching death, the systolic blood pressure will typically drop below 95mm Hg. However, this number can vary greatly as some individuals will always run low. Low blood pressure alone does not mean that death is imminent. Therefore, it is difficult to give an exact low blood pressure death range. The patient’s hospice care team will be assessing all of the patient’s symptoms in their totality, including how the patient is breathing and whether they have become unresponsive.
All things considered, metformin can cause a modest reduction in weight, most likely due to side effects, like a decreased appetite and an upset stomach. But although effective for weight loss, the drug doesn’t replace traditional dieting methods. So if you’re looking to lose more and keep the weight off longer, you have to get active and eat right.
Healthcare professionals use a stethoscope and a manual sphygmomanometer to measure your blood pressure. Typically they take the reading above your elbow. The sphygmomanometer has a bladder, cuff, bulb, and a gauge. When the bulb is pumped it inflates the bladder inside the cuff, which is wrapped around your arm. This inflation will stop the blood flow in your arteries. The stethoscope is used to listen for sound of the heartbeat, and no sound indicates that there is no flow. As the pressure is released from the bladder, you will hear the sound of the blood flowing again. That point becomes systolic reading. The diastolic reading is when you hear no sound again, which means that the blood flow is back to normal.

tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking. Be sure to mention any of the following: amiloride (Midamor); angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors such as benazepril (Lotensin, in Lotrel), captopril, enalapril (Vasotec, in Vaseretic), fosinopril, lisinopril (in Zestoretic), moexipril (Univasc), perindopril (Aceon), quinapril (Accupril), ramipril (Altace), and trandolapril (Mavik); beta-blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin), labetalol (Trandate), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL), nadolol (Corgard, in Corzide), and propranolol (Hemangeol, Inderal, InnoPran); calcium channel blockers such as amlodipine (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem, Cartia, Diltzac, others), felodipine, isradipine, nicardipine (Cardene), nifedipine (Adalat, Afeditab CR, Procardia), nimodipine (Nymalize), nisoldipine (Sular), and verapamil (Calan, Covera, Verelan, in Tarka); cimetidine (Tagamet); digoxin (Lanoxin); diuretics ('water pills'); furosemide (Lasix); hormone replacement therapy; insulin or other medications for diabetes; isoniazid (Laniazid, in Rifamate, in Rifater); medications for asthma and colds; medications for mental illness and nausea; medications for thyroid disease; morphine (MS Contin, others); niacin; oral contraceptives ('birth control pills'); oral steroids such as dexamethasone, methylprednisolone (Medrol), and prednisone (Rayos); phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek); procainamide; quinidine (in Nuedexta); quinine; ranitidine (Zantac); triamterene (Dyrenium, in Maxzide, others); trimethoprim (Primsol); or vancomycin (Vancocin). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.


Blood pressure: The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is produced primarily by the contraction of the heart muscle. It's measurement is recorded by two numbers. The first (systolic pressure) is measured after the heart contracts and is highest. The second (diastolic pressure) is measured before the heart contracts and lowest. A blood pressure cuff is used to measure the pressure. Elevation of blood pressure is called "hypertension".
^ Martin-Cabezas, Rodrigo; Seelam, Narendra; Petit, Catherine; Agossa, Kévimy; Gaertner, Sébastien; Tenenbaum, Henri; Davideau, Jean-Luc; Huck, Olivier (October 2016). "Association between periodontitis and arterial hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis". American Heart Journal. 180: 98–112. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2016.07.018. ISSN 1097-6744. PMID 27659888.

Your doctor can help you measure and track your blood pressure to confirm whether it’s too high. You may need to start taking medications if your blood pressure doesn’t improve after one month of following a healthy lifestyle, especially if you’re already at high risk for heart disease. If you’re at lower risk, your doctor may want to follow up in three to six months after you’ve adopted more healthy habits.


I just started using high blood pressure medication and purchased a blood pressure meter at age 72. what concerns me is that the BP readings I get have a very wide variance in. I measure every morning as soon as I wake up, while still in bed and prior to having any coffee. I take 3 or 4 readings. I have found that on any given day my reading can vary from 126 to 143 systolic and the diastolic reading from 68 to 87. this wide variance makes it very difficult to track trends. My questions are: is this normal? is my instrument possibly defective? How can my cardiac doctor make a decision to put me on life long medication based on SINGLE reading in his office?
^ Jump up to: a b Go, AS; Bauman, M; King, SM; Fonarow, GC; Lawrence, W; Williams, KA; Sanchez, E (15 November 2013). "An Effective Approach to High Blood Pressure Control: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention". Hypertension. 63 (4): 878–85. doi:10.1161/HYP.0000000000000003. PMID 24243703. Archived from the original on 20 November 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013.

The relationship between metformin and weight is unclear, but several theories provide a plausible explanation for weight fluctuations. Reduced hunger is one proven side effect of metformin, according to the Mayo Clinic. It might not appear as if you’re eating less with this drug, but the number of calories you’re currently consuming for breakfast, lunch, and dinner might be lower than your normal food intake. This subtle change in appetite could be responsible for a gradual decline in weight.
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:
The United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommended in 2004 that women with PCOS and a body mass index above 25 be given metformin for anovulation and infertility when other therapies fail to produce results.[44] UK and international clinical practice guidelines do not recommend metformin as a first-line treatment[45] or do not recommend it at all, except for women with glucose intolerance.[46] The guidelines suggest clomiphene as the first medication option and emphasize lifestyle modification independently from medical treatment. Metformin treatment decreases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with PCOS who exhibited impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) at baseline.[47][48]
Lean, M. E. J., Leslie, W. S., Barnes, A. C., Brosnahan, N., Thom, G., McCombie, L. … Taylor, R. (2017, December 5). Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): An open-label, cluster-randomised trial. The Lancet, 391(10120), 541–551. Retrieved from https://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736(17)33102-1.pdf
This side effect only occurs when using the extended-release version. In this version, metformin diffuses through the capsule that contains the drug, and in many people the empty shell is not digested, passing apparently intact through the digestive tract. However, even though the pill appears intact, it’s just an empty husk; the medicine has been absorbed.

Persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors for strokes, heart attacks, heart failure and arterial aneurysms, and is the leading cause of chronic kidney failure. Even moderate elevation of arterial pressure leads to shortened life expectancy. At severely high pressures, mean arterial pressures 50% or more above average, a person can expect to live no more than a few years unless appropriately treated.[40]
4. As for the comments, I have "averaged" the references made in the literature, since not all doctors agree upon the pressures at which to treat, and how aggressively to treat (multiple medications, type of meds, etc.). You can rest assured that the pharmaceutical companies prefer that you take medication at 135/80, since they sell the meds. Most doctors are not so aggressive. Remember that ALL medications have side effects. Heart medications have more serious side effects than any other class of prescription drugs.
From time to time, we promote, endorse, or suggest products or services of others. In most cases, we will be compensated – either as an affiliate with a commission based on sales, or with a free product to review or use.Our recommendations are always based on (i) our personal belief in the high quality and value of the product or service, and (ii) our review of the product or service, or a prior relationship or positive experience with the sponsoring person or organization.
Some heart attacks are sudden and intense, however most heart attacks start slowly with mild pain and discomfort. Most heart attacks involve discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes, or that goes away and comes back. It can feel like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain. Shortness of breath may occur, as well as nausea, or lightheadedness. It is vital to get help immediately if any of these symptoms occur.
All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2019. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/condition/getcondition/High-Blood-Pressure
For those with heart valve regurgitation, a change in its severity may be associated with a change in diastolic pressure. In a study of people with heart valve regurgitation that compared measurements 2 weeks apart for each person, there was an increased severity of aortic and mitral regurgitation when diastolic blood pressure increased, whereas when diastolic blood pressure decreased, there was a decreased severity.[43]
Metformin causes depletion of Vitamin B12, Folic Acid and CoQ10, leading to feelings of tiredness, weakness and in some cases, even anemia. If you have been feeling tired all the time and are lacking the energy to do anything, you may be missing Vitamin B12, or Folic Acid (Vitamin B9), or Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). These nutrients are needed to ensure that red blood cells of the right size are created in the body and cells are able to produce energy.
^ Saiz, Luis Carlos; Gorricho, Javier; Garjón, Javier; Celaya, Mª Concepción; Muruzábal, Lourdes; Malón, Mª del Mar; Montoya, Rodolfo; López, Antonio (2017-10-11). "Blood pressure targets for the treatment of people with hypertension and cardiovascular disease". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10: CD010315. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd010315.pub2. PMID 29020435.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.[10] High blood pressure typically does not cause symptoms.[1] Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.[2][3][4][11]
A nurse takes your blood pressure at your annual physical. The numbers are recorded and the checkup continues. But do you know where on the blood pressure chart your levels are? Are they healthy? Too low? Too high, meaning you have hypertension? If you have high blood pressure or are heading in that direction, you should know that hypertension is among the primary enlarged heart causes, and a major risk factor for heart failure.
^ Jump up to: a b Shu AD, Myers MG, Shoelson SE (2005). "Chapter 29: Pharmacology of the Endocrine Pancreas". In Golan ED, Tashjian AH, Armstrong EJ, Galanter JM, Armstrong AW, Arnaout RA, Rose HS. Principles of pharmacology: the pathophysiologic basis of drug therapy. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. pp. 540–41. ISBN 978-0-7817-4678-6.
Blood pressure is more than just a number. Managing hypertension can reduce your risk of heart attack, stroke, and early death. If you’re committed to making positive lifestyle changes and managing your blood pressure, you can reduce or even eliminate your need for blood pressure medication. Lower your blood pressure and take control of your health.
These common metformin side effects also happen because metformin alters your digestive process and your nutrient absorption. Some foods/products may start tasting and smelling better to you, while others may gain an unfamiliar/unpleasant smell/taste. Patients often report a heightened sense of smell on metformin, as well as metallic taste in the mouth and while consuming certain foods. 1-5% of the patients experience taste and smell disturbances while medicating with metformin.
Rates of high blood pressure in children and adolescents have increased in the last 20 years in the United States.[147] Childhood hypertension, particularly in pre-adolescents, is more often secondary to an underlying disorder than in adults. Kidney disease is the most common secondary cause of hypertension in children and adolescents. Nevertheless, primary or essential hypertension accounts for most cases.[148]
Blood pressure in non-human mammals is similar to human blood pressure. In contrast, heart rate differs markedly, largely depending on the size of the animal (larger animals have slower heart rates).[71] As in humans, blood pressure in animals differs by age, sex, time of day and circumstances:[72][73] measurements made in laboratories or anesthesia may not be representative of values under free-living conditions. Rats, mice, dogs and rabbits have been used extensively to study the causes of high blood pressure.[74]
Too often, doctors prescribe the regular version without any consideration of the extended-release (ER) version. By taking the ER version, each dose is being introduced over the course of hours and hours versus all at once, which significantly reduces the unwanted gastric side effects. While it does cost more, it could greatly metformin’s side-effects.
After the age of 20, all adults should begin to monitor their blood pressure at their regular healthcare visits. If you are older than 40 or have risk factors for high blood pressure, you should have your blood pressure checked in both arms at least annually. It’s important to use the correct size blood pressure cuff, which is why it may not be adequate to check your blood pressure in an automatic machine at the pharmacy or grocery store.

African-Americans are at greater risk of developing hypertension than people of other races. African-Americans develop high blood pressure earlier in life and have more difficulty achieving blood pressure goals. Some studies suggest that African-Americans may be more sensitive to salt than other races. For those who are genetically prone to salt sensitivity, a small amount (half-teaspoon) of salt can raise blood pressure by 5 mm Hg. Dietary factors and being overweight can also raise blood pressure.
Metformin causes depletion of Vitamin B12, Folic Acid and CoQ10, leading to feelings of tiredness, weakness and in some cases, even anemia. If you have been feeling tired all the time and are lacking the energy to do anything, you may be missing Vitamin B12, or Folic Acid (Vitamin B9), or Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). These nutrients are needed to ensure that red blood cells of the right size are created in the body and cells are able to produce energy.
"For those patients with diabetes who can't take metformin, due to chronic kidney disease or other concerns, diet and lifestyle modifications will still be of utmost importance, whether they’re prescribed alternate medication or not. Controlling carbohydrate intake, increasing physical activity, and managing stress is the cornerstone of improving glycemic control,” says Magnotta.
Normal blood pressure is considered to be less than 120/80 mm Hg. With 24-hour monitoring or frequent home blood pressure monitoring, daytime normal blood pressure is defined as an average blood pressure less than 135/85 mm Hg. If your numbers are higher than this, it does not mean you have high blood pressure. Blood pressure can change in response to exercise, stress, medication, illness, and even the time of day. It’s important to take several readings over time in order to make an appropriate diagnosis.
Normal blood pressure is below 120/80. New guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC) published in November of 2017 consider blood pressure elevated between 120/80 and 129/80. High blood pressure or hypertension is now classified as stage 1 if your systolic reading falls between 130 and 139 or your diastolic reading is between 80 and 89. A measure of 140/90 or higher is now considered stage 2 hypertension. A hypertensive crisis is defined as a systolic rate over 180 or a diastolic rate above 120. An elevated blood pressure means that the heart must work harder to pump blood. High blood pressure can also damage the walls of the arteries. Over time, hypertension increases the risk of heart disease, kidney disease, and stroke. It is estimated that one in three adults in America are affected by hypertension.
Metformin is a drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as a prescription medication to treat diabetes. This medication is used to decrease hepatic (liver) glucose production, to decrease GI glucose absorption and to increase target cell insulin sensitivity. This medication is a treatment indicated as an adjunct to diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes such as weight loss to improve glycemic (blood sugar) control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Many patients with type 2 diabetes will eventually need to take insulin by injection. Metformin does not cause weight gain.
Symptoms of low blood sugar include sudden sweating, shaking, fast heartbeat, hunger, blurred vision, dizziness, or tingling hands/feet. It is a good habit to carry glucose tablets or gel to treat low blood sugar. If you don't have these reliable forms of glucose, rapidly raise your blood sugar by eating a quick source of sugar such as table sugar, honey, or candy, or drink fruit juice or non-diet soda. Tell your doctor about the reaction right away. Low blood sugar is more likely if you drink large amounts of alcohol, do unusually heavy exercise, or do not consume enough calories from food. To help prevent low blood sugar, eat meals on a regular schedule, and do not skip meals. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to find out what you should do if you miss a meal.

3. Fairly recently, the difference between Systolic and Diastolic pressure, named "Pulse Pressure", has been gaining interest in the research community. This Pulse Pressure has been found to correlate linearly with heart attack risk - the higher the number, the higher the risk. According to this theory, a BP of 140/ 90 (PP=50) is more desirable than a BP of 140/ 80 (PP=60).
7. Visit your chiropractor. A special chiropractic adjustment could significantly lower high blood pressure, a placebo-controlled study suggests. “This procedure has the effect of not one, but two blood–pressure medications given in combination,” study leader George Bakris, MD, told WebMD. Your chiropractor can create an effective protocol that helps normalize blood pressure without medication or other invasive procedures.
^ Jump up to: a b Burt VL, Cutler JA, Higgins M, et al. (July 1995). "Trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the adult US population. Data from the health examination surveys, 1960 to 1991". Hypertension. 26 (1): 60–69. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.26.1.60. PMID 7607734. Archived from the original on 2012-12-20. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
Some heart attacks are sudden and intense, however most heart attacks start slowly with mild pain and discomfort. Most heart attacks involve discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes, or that goes away and comes back. It can feel like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain. Shortness of breath may occur, as well as nausea, or lightheadedness. It is vital to get help immediately if any of these symptoms occur.

Many mechanisms have been proposed to account for the rise in peripheral resistance in hypertension. Most evidence implicates either disturbances in the kidneys' salt and water handling (particularly abnormalities in the intrarenal renin–angiotensin system)[61] or abnormalities of the sympathetic nervous system.[62] These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and it is likely that both contribute to some extent in most cases of essential hypertension. It has also been suggested that endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation may also contribute to increased peripheral resistance and vascular damage in hypertension.[63][64] Interleukin 17 has garnered interest for its role in increasing the production of several other immune system chemical signals thought to be involved in hypertension such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and interleukin 8.[65]
Type 2 diabetes (also known as adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes) is the most common form of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which the body does not process insulin properly, resulting in elevated blood sugar (blood glucose). Insulin is a hormone that is produced in the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed more often in people who are overweight or obese, and who are not physically active. Patients with diabetes should also note that a healthy weight improves cholesterol levels and overall health. Insulin resistance is a condition that is commonly seen in type 2 diabetes, where it becomes difficult for the body to use the insulin that is produced. Certain genes that affect insulin production rather than insulin resistance are a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes. Family history of diabetes is a risk factor, and people of certain races or ethnicities are at higher risk. Abnormal glucose production by the liver can also lead to elevated blood sugar (glucose) levels.
Blood pressure is expressed by two measurements, the systolic and diastolic pressures, which are the maximum and minimum pressures, respectively.[1] For most adults, normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100–130 millimeters mercury (mmHg) systolic and 60–80 mmHg diastolic.[7][12] For most adults, high blood pressure is present if the resting blood pressure is persistently at or above 130/80 or 140/90 mmHg.[5][7] Different numbers apply to children.[13] Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over a 24-hour period appears more accurate than office-based blood pressure measurement.[5][10]
All things considered, metformin can cause a modest reduction in weight, most likely due to side effects, like a decreased appetite and an upset stomach. But although effective for weight loss, the drug doesn’t replace traditional dieting methods. So if you’re looking to lose more and keep the weight off longer, you have to get active and eat right.
Unchecked, high blood pressure can lead to a myriad of serious health problems, such as heart attacks, strokes, and other forms of heart disease and kidney disease. It is extremely dangerous during pregnancy because it contributes to devastating and even deadly problems for moms and babies. Other impacts of hypertension include vision problems and sexual dysfunction.
Aldosterone release: This steroid hormone is released from the adrenal cortex in response to angiotensin II or high serum potassium levels. Aldosterone stimulates sodium retention and potassium excretion by the kidneys. Since sodium is the main ion that determines the amount of fluid in the blood vessels by osmosis, aldosterone will increase fluid retention, and indirectly, arterial pressure.

One of the most common diets recommended for those individuals who struggle with hypertension is called the DASH diet, which stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. The DASH diet-a low-sodium, low-fat diet that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, and grains-is the result of a study by the federal government. Compared to two control groups, one that followed a “normal” American diet and the other a traditional diet high in fruits and vegetables, people on the DASH diet reduced their blood pressure by an average of 6 points of systolic pressure and 3 points of diastolic pressure. Those people in the study who already had been diagnosed with hypertension reduced their blood pressure by 11 systolic points and 6 diastolic points. According to Fortmann, the DASH diet shows the importance of diet, especially a significant reduction in salt, to lowering blood pressure. Under the DASH diet, an individual is advised to eat no more than one-quarter teaspoon of salt per day. By comparison, the average American eats about four teaspoons of salt daily, nearly fifteen times more.
Many mechanisms have been proposed to account for the rise in peripheral resistance in hypertension. Most evidence implicates either disturbances in the kidneys' salt and water handling (particularly abnormalities in the intrarenal renin–angiotensin system)[61] or abnormalities of the sympathetic nervous system.[62] These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and it is likely that both contribute to some extent in most cases of essential hypertension. It has also been suggested that endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation may also contribute to increased peripheral resistance and vascular damage in hypertension.[63][64] Interleukin 17 has garnered interest for its role in increasing the production of several other immune system chemical signals thought to be involved in hypertension such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and interleukin 8.[65]
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